Rule 301 - Confidential Client Information

A member in public practice shall not disclose any confidential client information without the specific consent of the client.

This rule shall not be construed (1) to relieve a member of his or her professional obligations under rules 202 and 203, (2) to affect in any way the member’s obligation to comply with a validly issued and enforceable subpoena or summons, or to prohibit a member’s compliance with the applicable laws and government regulations, (3) to prohibit review of a member’s professional practice under AICPA or state CPA society or Board of Accountancy authorization, or (4) to preclude a member from initiating a complaint with, or responding to any inquiry made by, the professional ethics division or trial board of the Institute or a duly constituted investigative or disciplinary body of a state CPA society or Board of Accountancy.

Members of any of the bodies identified in (4) above and members involved with professional practice reviews identified in (3) above shall not use to their own advantage or disclose any member’s confidential client information that comes to their attention in carrying out those activities. This prohibition shall not restrict members’ exchange of information in connection with the investigative or disciplinary proceedings described in (4) above or the professional practice reviews described in (3) above.

An auditor should have access to a variety of information held by the client if the engagement is to be successful. The client will grant the auditor access to sensitive files and reports only if it can expect the auditor to hold the information in confidence. The purpose of Rule 301 is to encourage a free flow of information from the client to the CPA; however, the rule makes it clear that the principle of confidentiality is not absolute. The confidentiality concept does not allow the client to omit information that is required by generally accepted accounting principles. SAS-32 (Adequacy of Disclosure in Financial Statements) reinforces this position by stating that if a client omits information that is required by GAAP, a qualified or adverse opinion must be expressed. On the other hand, SAS-32 does note that an auditor ordinarily should not make available information that is not required to be disclosed to comply with GAAP.

Rule 301 recognizes the confidentiality of client information, but makes it clear that the information does not constitute privileged communication. In most states, and most federal courts, the CPA can be forced to testify in a case involving the client. Thus, the rule recognizes that an auditor must respond to a subpoena or summons.

In recent years, the concept of peer review has been accepted by the profession. Rule 301 allows a peer or quality review of a CPA’s professional practice as part of an AICPA or state society of CPAs program.

Finally, Rule 301 states that it is not a violation of confidentiality when a member initiates a complaint with or responds to inquiries from a recognized investigative or disciplinary body such as the AICPA’s Professional Ethics Division or Trial Board.

Rule 302 - Contingent Fees

A member in public practice shall not:

1. Perform for a contingent fee any professional services for, or receive such a fee from, a client for whom the member or the member’s firm performs:

(a) an audit or review of a financial statement; or

(b) a compilation of a financial statement when the member expects, or reasonably might expect, that a third party will use the financial statement and the member’s compilation report does not disclose a lack of independence; or

(c) an examination of prospective financial information; or

2. Prepare an original or amended tax return or claim for a tax refund for a contingent fee for any client.

The prohibition in (1) above applies during the period in which the member or the member’s firm is engaged to perform any of the services listed above and the period covered by any historical financial statements involved in any such listed services.

Except as stated in the next sentence, a contingent fee is a fee established for the performance of any service pursuant to an arrangement in which no fee will be charged unless a specified finding or result is attained, or in which the amount of the fee is otherwise dependent upon the finding or result of such service. Solely for the purposes of this rule, fees are not regarded as being contingent if fixed by courts or other public authorities, or, in tax matters, if determined based on the results of judicial proceedings or the findings of governmental agencies.

A member’s fees may vary depending, for example, on the complexity of services rendered.

The accounting profession has had a long-standing tradition that a contingent fee would infringe on the CPA’s ability to be independent. A contingent fee is based on an arrangement whereby the client is not required to pay the CPA unless a specified finding or result is attained. For example, a contingent fee arrangement would exist if the auditor’s fee is dependent on the net proceeds of a public stock offering. Engagement fees should be determined by such factors as the number of hours required to perform the engagement, the type of personnel needed for the engagement, and the complexity of the engagement.

Fees are not considered to be contingent if they are determined (1) by courts or other public authorities or (2) by judicial proceedings or governmental agencies in the case of tax matters.

Before 1991, Rule 302 prohibited contingent fees for all professional engagements (with the exception of certain fees fixed by the judicial or quasi-judicial process). In 1985, The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) challenged the position of the profession concerning contingent fees on the basis of restraint of trade. After prolonged negotiations between the AICPA and the FTC, Rule 301 (as reproduced above) was issued to modify the prior prohibition against contingent fees.

Rule 302 prohibits contingent fees for all additional professional services when the CPA has performed an attestation engagement, which includes audits, reviews, and examinations of prospective financial information. Also, the CPA may not perform any services for a client on a contingent fee basis when the CPA has performed a compilation engagement if the compilation report is expected to be used by a third party and does not disclose that the CPA is not independent with respect to the client.

The period of prohibition includes the date covered by the financial statements and the period during which the attestation service (and compilation service, as described above) is performed. For example, if the CPA is auditing a client’s financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2001, and the date of the auditor’s report is March 12, 2002, no services could be performed on a contingent fee basis by the auditor for the period from January 1, 2001, through March 12, 2002.

Rule 302 also prohibits the CPA from charging a contingent fee to prepare an original or amended tax return or claim for a refund. While independence is not an issue in performing tax services, the AICPA takes the position that it would be unprofessional to charge a fee, for example, based on the amount of refund that may be claimed on the tax return.

Rule 501 - Acts Discreditable

A member shall not commit an act discreditable to the profession.

Rule 501 is very broad. It is basic to ethical conduct, and only through its observance can the profession expect to win the confidence of the public. What constitutes a discreditable act is highly judgmental. There has been no attempt to be specific about what constitutes a discreditable act; however, the AICPA bylaws (Section 7.3) state that the following actions will lead to membership suspension or termination, without the need for a disciplinary hearing:

& If a member commits a crime punishable by imprisonment for more than one year.

& If a member willfully fails to file an income tax return that he or she, as an individual taxpayer, is required by law to file.

& If a member files a false or fraudulent income tax return on his or her behalf, or on a client’s behalf.

& If a member willfully aids in the preparation and presentation of a false and fraudulent income tax return of a client.

& If a member’s certificate as a certified public accountant, or license or permit to practice as such, is revoked by a governmental authority as a disciplinary measure.

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