By Ken Goodpaster
A year or two ago, I flew to Geneva, Switzerland to be part of an annual meeting that I had attended a number of times in the past. The meeting was held in a turn of the (20th) century hotel, built on a mountain overlooking Montreux, a resort town on the eastern shore of Lake Geneva. The name of the village on the mountain is Caux-sur-Montreux, or simply Caux; the group that gathered was known as the Caux Round Table.
-- positive consumer evaluations,
-- adherence to recognized codes of consumer protection, and
-- minimal negative legal or regulatory actions.
For the principle regarding employees, a commitment to their dignity, health and safety would be manifest in benchmarks such as:
-- third party recognition of employment practices,
-- minimal negative legal or regulatory actions, and
-- demonstrated commitment to employee training and development.
As credible benchmarks for the Caux Principles are developed, it becomes further necessary to spell out how these benchmarks will be measured so that comparisons between companies on each of the benchmarks (as well as comparisons between the behavior of any given company at two different times) can be fair and objective. Decisions must be made, for example, about what data to rely on for measuring 'third party recognition' of companies' practices, or 'minimal legal and regulatory actions.'
The CAUX Principles
|In a world which is experiencing profound transformation, the Caux Round Table of business leaders from Europe, Japan and the United States is committed to energizing the role of business and industry as a vital force for innovative global change.
The Round Table was founded in 1986 by Frederik Philips, former President of Philips Electronics, and Olivier Giscard d'Estaing, Vice-Chairman of INSEAD, as a means of reducing escalating trade tensions. It is concerned with the development of constructive economic and social relationships between the participants' countries, and with their urgent joint responsibilities toward the rest of the world.
At the urging of Ryuzaburo Kaku, Chairman of Canon Inc., the Round Table has focused attention on the importance of global corporate responsibility in reducing social and economic threats to world peace and stability. The Round Table recognizes that shared leadership is indispensable to a revitalized and more harmonious world. It emphasizes the development of continuing friendship, understanding and cooperation, based on a common respect for the highest moral values and on responsible action by individuals in their own spheres of influence.
The Caux Round Table believes that the world business community should play an important role in improving economic and social conditions. As a statement of aspirations, this document aims to express a world standard against which business behavior can be measured. We seek to begin a process that identifies shared values, reconciles differing values, and thereby develops a shared perspective on business behavior acceptable to and honored by all.
The mobility of employment, capital, products and technology is making business increasingly global in its transactions and its effects.
Law and market forces are necessary but insufficient guides for conduct.
Responsibility for the policies and actions of business and respect for the dignity and interests of its stakeholders are fundamental.
Shared values, including a commitment to shared prosperity, are as important for a global community as for communities of smaller scale.
For these reasons, and because business can be a powerful agent of positive social change, we offer the following principles as a foundation for dialogue and action by business leaders in search of business responsibility. In so doing, we affirm the necessity for moral values in business decision making. Without them, stable business relationships and a sustainable world community are impossible.
Section 2. General Principles
Principle 1. The Responsibilities Of Businesses:
The value of a business to society is the wealth and employment it creates and the marketable products and services it provides to consumers at a reasonable price commensurate with quality. To create such value, a business must maintain its own economic health and viability, but survival is not a sufficient goal.
Businesses established in foreign countries to develop, produce or sell should also contribute to the social advancement of those countries by creating productive employment and helping to raise the purchasing power of their citizens. Businesses also should contribute to human rights, education, welfare, and vitalization of the countries in which they operate.
While accepting the legitimacy of trade secrets, businesses should recognize that sincerity, candor, truthfulness, the keeping of promises, and transparency contribute not only to their own credibility and stability but also to the smoothness and efficiency of business transactions, particularly on the international level.
To avoid trade frictions and to promote freer trade, equal conditions for competition, and fair and equitable treatment for all participants, businesses should respect international and domestic rules. In addition, they should recognize that some behavior, although legal, may still have adverse consequences.
Businesses should support the multilateral trade systems of the GATT/World Trade Organization and similar international agreements. They should cooperate in efforts to promote the progressive and judicious liberalization of trade and to relax those domestic measures that unreasonably hinder global commerce, while giving due respect to national policy objectives.
A business should protect and, where possible, improve the environment, promote sustainable development, and prevent the wasteful use of natural resources.
A business should not participate in or condone bribery, money laundering, or other corrupt practices: indeed, it should seek cooperation with others to eliminate them. It should not trade in arms or other materials used for terrorist activities, drug traffic or other organized crime.
Section 3. Stakeholder Principles
We believe in treating all customers with dignity, irrespective of whether they purchase our products and services directly from us or otherwise acquire them in the market. We therefore have a responsibility to:
provide our customers with the highest quality products and services consistent with their requirements;
treat our customers fairly in all aspects of our business transactions, including a high level of service and remedies for their dissatisfaction;
make every effort to ensure that the health and safety of our customers, as well as the quality of their environment, will be sustained or enhanced by our products and services;
assure respect for human dignity in products offered, marketing, and advertising; and respect the integrity of the culture of our customers.
We believe in the dignity of every employee and in taking employee interests seriously. We therefore have a responsibility to:
provide jobs and compensation that improve workers' living conditions;
provide working conditions that respect each employee's health and dignity;
be honest in communications with employees and open in sharing information, limited only by legal and competitive constraints;
listen to and, where possible, act on employee suggestions, ideas, requests and complaints;
engage in good faith negotiations when conflict arises;
avoid discriminatory practices and guarantee equal treatment and opportunity in areas such as gender, age, race, and religion;
promote in the business itself the employment of differently abled people in places of work where they can be genuinely useful;
protect employees from avoidable injury and illness in the workplace;
encourage and assist employees in developing relevant and transferable skills and knowledge; and
be sensitive to the serious unemployment problems frequently associated with business decisions, and work with governments, employee groups, other agencies and each other in addressing these dislocations.
We believe in honoring the trust our investors place in us. We therefore have a responsibility to:
apply professional and diligent management in order to secure a fair and competitive return on our owners' investment;
disclose relevant information to owners/investors subject to legal requirements and competitive constraints;
conserve, protect, and increase the owners/investors' assets; and
respect owners/investors' requests, suggestions, complaints, and formal resolutions.
Our relationship with suppliers and subcontractors must be based on mutual respect. We therefore have a responsibility to :
seek fairness and truthfulness in all our activities, including pricing, licensing, and rights to sell;
ensure that our business activities are free from coercion and unnecessary litigation;
foster long-term stability in the supplier relationship in return for value, quality, competitiveness and reliability;
share information with suppliers and integrate them into our planning processes;
pay suppliers on time and in accordance with agreed terms of trade; and
seek, encourage and prefer suppliers and subcontractors whose employment practices respect human dignity.
We believe that fair economic competition is one of the basic requirements for increasing the wealth of nations and ultimately for making possible the just distribution of goods and services. We therefore have a responsibility to:
foster open markets for trade and investment;
promote competitive behavior that is socially and environmentally beneficial and demonstrates mutual respect among competitors;
refrain from either seeking or participating in questionable payments or favors to secure competitive advantages;
respect both tangible and intellectual property rights; and
refuse to acquire commercial information by dishonest or unethical means, such as industrial espionage.
We believe that as global corporate citizens we can contribute to such forces of reform and human rights as are at work in the communities in which we operate. We therefore have a responsibility in those communities to:
respect human rights and democratic institutions, and promote them wherever practicable;
recognize government's legitimate obligation to the society at large and support public policies and practices that promote human development through harmonious relations between business and other segments of society;
collaborate with those forces in the community dedicated to raising standards of health, education, workplace safety and economic well-being;
promote and stimulate sustainable development and play a leading role in preserving and enhancing the physical environment and conserving the earth's resources;
support peace, security, diversity and social integration;
respect the integrity of local cultures; and
be a good corporate citizen through charitable donations, educational and cultural contributions, and employee participation in community and civic affairs.
Values Added: Making Ethical Decisions in the Financial Marketplace
Ethical Theory and Business
The Principles for Business have been offered as a guide for companies to develop, re-examine, implement and monitor their own principles. The real value of any set of principles is in its use and implementation in day to day business activities. The Caux Round Table (CRT) seeks to compile evidence of worldwide best practices and stories of application of these and similar principles to practical issues. We welcome your sharing examples of best practices from your companies experience with or without reference to the company name.
We encourage others who have used the Caux Round Table Principles for Business to notify us if you would like to be included in this listing.
|KENNETH E. GOODPASTER holds the David and Barbara Koch Chair in Business Ethics at the University of St. Thomas in St. Paul, Minnesota. He received his Ph.D. in Philosophy at the University of Michigan and holds an A.M. in Philosophy from that school, and an A.B. in mathematics from the University of Notre Dame. Professor Goodpaster taught graduate and undergraduate philosophy at Notre Dame before joining the faculty of the Harvard Business School in 1980, where he taught both M.B.A. candidates and business executives until 1990. His research in applied philosophy, focusing on the dynamic relationships among three levels of ethical analysis -- the person, the organization, and the capitalist system -- has led to course development, numerous journal publications, encyclopedia articles, and other books including Ethics in Management (Harvard Business School, 1984) and Managerial Decision Making and Ethical Values with Thomas R. Piper (Harvard Business School, 1989). Goodpaster is on the editorial boards of many professional journals in business ethics and consults with corporations and educational institutions throughout the world.