Oxford 2004 Post Conference Submitted
Literature /Growth in Non-profits
In the non-profit sector, the objectives of the Social Entrepreneur are to develop and support social causes, as opposed to pursuing economic objectives. This definition is consistent with Say's definition of an entrepreneur as one who attempts to "fulfill needs and wants through innovation" (Say, 1803). This is also consistent with Schumpeter, since these innovations frequently are designed to change society and its views. In essence, the Social Entrepreneur is acting as a Change Agent by:
Brinkerhoff, in focusing on non-profit Social Entrepreneurs, follows this approach by noting that they exhibit the traditional entrepreneur's willingness to take reasonable risks where such risks will further the interests of the stakeholders that their organizations serve. Brinkerhoff adds that the resources of the organization are to be utilized to meet the social goals and needs and that the Social Entrepreneur needs to act as steward of these resources for the stakeholders. (Brinkerhoff, 2000)
Little has been written of the growth stages of Social Entrepreneurial organizations. The closest analogy would be to studies of growth in for-profit entrepreneurial organizations. Eggers, et al. (1994) expanded on the definition of stages of small business growth presented by Churchill and Lewis (1983). Eggers noted that entrepreneurial organizations follow a clear pattern of growth, from Conception through Survival, Stabilization, Growth Orientation, Rapid Growth, and Resource Maturity. One of the most difficult transitions comes typically in the later phases when professional managers may be brought in to replace the original founder (Eggers, 1994, p. 136). As summarized by Churchill (1983): "This is a pivotal period in a company's life. If the owner rises to the challenges of a growing company, both financially and managerially, it can become a big business…. Often the entrepreneur who founded the company and brought it to the Success Stage ["Stabilization" and "Growth Orientation" in Eggers] is replaced either voluntarily or involuntarily by the company's investors or creditors." (pp.7, 9). Another challenge, particularly after such a change to professional management, is posed by changes in the external environment. In industries where consumer preferences or technology change, the organization must remain somewhat entrepreneurial or lose its competitive advantage. McDonald's is an example of a company that has been able to continue to grow by introducing new products and types of products in existing markets and moving into radically different cultures around the world. Digital Equipment Corp. (DEC), however, after dominating its segment of the rapidly-evolving computer industry in the 1970s, failed to see the threat posed by a new technology: the personal computer.
At each stage or phase of development, different skills are required to lead or manage successfully (Eggers, 1994). "Vision, Direction/Focus" was on the list from the first phase, Conception, never falling below fourth place (in the Growth Orientation phase). However, the specific skills needed, as reported by entrepreneurs, differed from phase to phase: Vision in "Rapid Growth" (Phase 5) included "Develop a Vision for growth. Stay focused on the 'big picture.' Communicate the Vision to employees." (p. 138), while in "Resource Maturity (Phase 6) it included "Act in alignment with the company vision. Maintain a clear sense of purpose. Instill that purpose in all employees." (p. 139). "Ethics & Organizational Culture" entered the list of skills for the first time in Phase 6, Resource Maturity. Its specific skills include "Exhibit integrity, honesty, & fairness. Set forward a clear set of values and principles for the company. Keep your commitments." (p. 139) These skill sets show the importance, and perhaps the difficulty, of maintaining focus on core values once size and success have been achieved.
Non-profit organizations, in this study, are assumed to follow stages of growth that are similar to those experienced by businesses as described above. The specific challenges faced by NPOs may be somewhat different, however skills such as planning/goal setting, financial management, and motivating others are equally necessary. As in a for-profit business, it is not necessary for an organization to grow in order to survive and to accomplish its mission. However, the opportunities presented by its mission may inspire it to continue to grow, in order to serve more constituents. As it grows, it also faces the challenges of scarce financial resources, too much demand, transitions in management, and, in the words of Eggers' entrepreneurs, the need to "stay focused on the 'big picture.'"
It is still possible for non-profit (NPO) organizations to continue to grow and to remain entrepreneurial, even after the loss of the founder through management change. It is not surprising that successful, "mature" NPOs still exhibit a strong mission-driven focus. What is, perhaps, surprising is the extent to which such "mature" NPO organizations may still remain entrepreneurial. Changes in the social environment served by the organization may require it to adapt its programming or even re-think its mission to meet changing, as well as emerging, social needs (Naumes, Kammermeyer, Naumes, 2003). At the same time, growth frequently occurs in a highly decentralized manner, via sub units such as affiliates, by attracting partners, and by increasing volunteers.
One of the measures of a successful, international-impact socially entrepreneurial non-profit (NPO) organization has been its ability to "pass on" its values and ethics to other individuals in order for these individuals, subgroups and non-central units to "carry on" the desired, defined, designated mission. It is clear that this cannot occur fully until an organization's mission/purpose is well known (essentially, "brand recognition"), since part of the passing on is for the recipients to know and agree with what is being passed on. One way that this has been accomplished is through formal and informal learning and training programs. These programs have a variety of target audiences. The process of the learning or passing on of knowledge, ethics and values can be to the general public, to those served (constituents), to members, to the staff and /or to the volunteers of non profit organizations. The process can be accomplished through brand recognition by the general public; very informally within the organization (excitement is passed on by the original social entrepreneur) or in a more structured manner via such resources as informational publications or educational products (pamphlets, videos, leaflets, small books), or formally with textbooks and/or classrooms with specific training.
Impact of Training on transmission of culture
Previous studies by the current authors (2003) have indicated that nonprofits that have both grown and remained entrepreneurial do so by "giving away" their mission, encouraging chapters/affiliates/sub-units to adapt to changing conditions and to find new ways to deliver their social mission. Mallory & Agarwal (2001) found that organizational size may lead to perceived distance from central operations, and therefore to reliance on peer groups or superiors to solve ethical dilemmas (p. 46) in for-profits, but not necessarily in NPOs. One significant difference between NPOs and for-profits is a climate based on individual caring, rather than on an orientation toward justice (rule- and hierarchy-based). Decision-making in NPOs is characterized by less reliance on organizational hierarchy, leading to the need for higher cognitive levels and a deeper understanding of the organizational climate by organization members. Significant other factors include the nature and frequency of interactions among coworkers and superiors, and, more significantly, internal individual commitment to the philosophy of the profession (for healthcare workers). Their conclusion is that leaders in NPOs need to be aware that "members, as a function of educational level, not only expect to be part of the decision process but are suspicious of the leadership when they are not included (p. 49).
Following Grossman & Rangan (2001), degrees of affiliation and autonomy may affect the relationship between the non profit and its affiliates. A strong desire for affiliation with the central organization occurs when the chapters or sub-units find strong value in the NPO's brand name and/or value enhancing activities such as lobbying or advocacy. A strong brand provides a sense of consistency and quality as well as fund-raising power and the ability to attract volunteers. Autonomy may be desired when the affiliate or sub-unit depends heavily on local volunteers, especially for leadership roles, when the customers/ constituents pay part of the costs of the services they receive at the local level, or when service needs to be customized for local conditions. Both desires may exist simultaneously, and the NPO and its subunits need to manage the mix of factors to achieve a balance that is appropriate for the whole organization.
Jaccaci (1989) develops the concept of a "learning culture," which he defines as one "where the measure of success is the combined wisdom of groups and the synergy, leadership, and service of the organization as a whole…The groups become cells in the body of an organization, which itself becomes a new learning individual in the emergent global culture" (p. 50). This description fits the relationship between the mature, but still entrepreneurial, multi-unit NPO and its affiliates/subunits as described by Naumes et al (2003). According to Jaccaci, education and mentorship are key components in the evolution of a learning culture.
What role does formal training and/or education play in the relationship of the mature NPO and its units or affiliates? Put another way, how can a large, international NPO decentralize and still ensure that its component parts remain focused on its mission?
The five Non-profit organizations (NPOs) selected for this study were all determined in a previous study to be at the stage of resource maturity (Phase 6 in Eggers, 1994). They were selected to be diverse in mission, in existence at least twenty years, and with strong international ties or international in impact, either directly or through affiliates' non profit organizations. All five, despite their age and size, had been found to still be entrepreneurial (Naumes et al, 2003). They are, in order of their establishment, the International Committee of the Red Cross, Girl Scouts, National Ski Patrol, The Nature Conservancy, and Habitat for Humanity International.
For each NPO, the relationship between the central organization and its sub-units or affiliates was examined, using information from the organization's website. Particular emphasis was placed on the mechanisms developed for educating and passing on the central organization's values to the sub-units/ affiliates, and to clients, partners, and volunteers. All but one of the organizations has a vehicle that allows them to further their brand recognition as well as communicate with these various groups. Table One summarizes this information.
Assumptions for our investigation of not- for profit social entrepreneurial organizations:
Descriptions of Organizations
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
The oldest organization in the sample was the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), founded in 1863. Its initial mission was to:
"provide non partisan care to the wounded and sick in times of war"
This initial mission has been expanded to include the increased and varied services that the ICRC has recognized as needed and then provided. In 2004, the mission statement read:
"The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is an impartial, neutral and independent organization, whose exclusively humanitarian mission is to protect the lives and dignity of victims of war and internal violence and to provide them with assistance. It directs and coordinates the international relief activities conducted by the Movement in situations of conflict. It also endeavors to prevent suffering by promoting and strengthening humanitarian law and universal humanitarian principles."
The ICRC's self described key responsibility is "to maintain support and respect for international humanitarian law, which serves to protect the victims of armed conflict". This translates into projects ranging from follow-up on over 150,000 detainees, distributing messages to restore contact between families separated by war, and providing clean water, health services, and direct aid in locations throughout the world. Affiliated national societies have also interpreted the basic mission to include humanitarian aid in times of natural disaster.
The ICRC works with national societies from 179 countries, and they, together with the International Federation, form the "International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement". All share common fundamental principles, but are not linked hierarchically. They pursue their own programs based on individual country needs, for example in the U.S. providing basic first aid training. However, in international conflict situations the "ICRC takes the lead role and directs the work of its partners."
The growth of the humanitarian services of the ICRC depends heavily on the partnerships of both for-profit, corporate donors at all levels and non-profit organizations, such as the United Nations. It relies on many volunteers, and on diplomatic and financial donors from member States as well as from individuals. It continues to evolve new programs to meet changing societal needs, such as the new Women and War Project.
Inspired by the British Scouting Movement, the Girl Scouts was founded in 1912 at Savannah, Georgia by Juliet Gordon Low. The original mission was to
"bring girls out of their cloistered home environments to serve their communities and experience the open air"
In response to the expanding role of women in a changing society the Girls Scouts today "hold on to traditional values while maintaining a contemporary outlook" and provide experiences that
"Allow girls to grow courageous and strong by helping them
There are more than 300 Girl Scout Councils, incorporated to serve specific geographic areas that are then divided by area and age into Troops (currently more than 230,000) throughout the United States and in 81 countries. The headquarters of the Girl Scouts is in New York City; its role is to support Girl Scout Councils through programs, managerial and specialist expertise, research capability and continuity to support the programs for girls. Their success depends heavily on the partnerships of both for-profit corporate donors at upper levels and of non-profit organizations. The councils also develop locally-based programming, both events and achievement awards, and there are many opportunities for cooperation and interrelationships among councils. The over 900,000 volunteers play a significant role at the troop and council levels.
National Ski Patrol
Since its founding in 1938 by Charles M. Dole, who later established the famed 10th Mountain Division during WWII, the creed of "service and safety" has been the foundation of the National Ski Patrol (NSP). The NSP, originally organized as a committee of the precursor to the United States Ski Association, is dedicated to serving the public and the mountain recreation industry by providing education services about emergency care and safety, as well as slope-side assistance. It is the largest winter rescue organization in the world and has been at the forefront of providing up to date services. Its current mission statement reads, in part:
"We are a member- driven association. Our members support and participate in the ski and outdoor recreation community by providing emergency care, rescue, and education servicesThe NSP is headquartered in Lakewood, Colorado. It is organized by Divisions which in turn are divided into Patrols. Ten geographic divisions and one professional division make up the National Ski Patrol. It has almost 30,000 members that serve on over 600 patrols, including both volunteer and paid. Individual patrols have developed additional ski-related activities, such as participation in Special Olympics, an example of partnership with an NPO. The NSP has assisted in establishing ski patrol organizations in Canada, Korea, New Zealand, Israel, Turkey, Argentina, Chile and Australia. It derives its financial support from membership dues, donations, user fees, and corporate partnership support, rather than fund-raising appeals. Much of the corporate support comes from local and regional businesses and is provided to local or divisional units.
The Nature Conservancy
The Nature Conservancy was incorporated in 1951 to take an
"active part in the effort to preserve open spaces"
In response to the changes in the natural environment and driven by science, not ideology [their words? If not, omit], the mission of the Nature Conservancy now is:
"To preserve the plants, animals and natural communities that represent the diversity of life on Earth by protecting the lands and waters they need to survive."
Since 1951 The Nature Conservancy has protected more than 116 million acres of land and water around the world; Asia Pacific, Caribbean, Central America, North America, and South America. In 1999 membership surpassed one million members. Within North America, it has subunits in every state or province. Other regions are organized by country and/or project. In its ability to sustain itself, The Nature Conservancy views itself as entrepreneurial in spirit, developing individually designed packages of funding and ownership to preserve critical habitats, for example working with cattle ranchers in the western U.S. states to encourage land-healthy grazing practices. It actively seeks out partnerships with corporations and NPOs that are looking for practical solutions for conservation issues.
Habitat for Humanity International (HFHI)
Millard Fuller had been a successful attorney and entrepreneur. After a personal crisis he and his wife Linda Fuller founded Habitat for Humanity in 1976. The mission of this ecumenical Christian housing ministry was to:
"eliminate poverty housing and homelessness from the world."
Habitat's current methods and mission are predominately derived from a few key theological concepts:
All of its work is accomplished at the community level by affiliates that are independent, locally run and have a volunteer board of directors; in this respect it can be considered a grass roots movement. Each affiliate, for example, creates housing plans that are appropriate in size and materials for the location and develops its own resource base for partnerships, volunteers and funding sources. All Habitat affiliates are asked to "tithe" (give 10% of their contributions) to fund house building in other nations. The headquarters provides information, leadership and technical training and other support services. To further its training goals, in particular "to identify and nurture the next generation of leadership necessary to fulfill the mission of eliminating poverty housing worldwide," HFHI developed Habitat for Humanity University, which has recently (2003) partnered with Harvard Business School Publishing to provide e-learning.
The success of HFHI is due to its use of partnerships, with families, volunteers, churches, other non-profits, and corporations. While Habitat does not accept government funds, it welcomes partnerships with governments to help "set the stage" for the construction of affordable housing. This could include property as well as infrastructure items.
Growth can be a double-edged sword. It allows more people to receive the benefits of the organization, but may lead to loss of mission focus and/or increased difficulty in maintaining service quality. One way to deal with this issue is to maintain control over the providers through a centralized, hierarchical organizational structure, at the risk of discouraging innovation and entrepreneurship. Another approach, that taken by all of the NPOs in our study, is to decentralize, allowing subunits to adapt to local and/or changing conditions, at the risk of their losing focus on the organization's mission. In both approaches, for the organization to remain true to its mission, it needs to ensure that, as it expands, all the additional providers of its services are thoroughly knowledgeable about both the services (technical skills) and the goals of the organization. To counter the entropy that can be created by decentralization while preserving its benefits, it is necessary to find means to transmit the mission and the culture (values and beliefs concerning how the mission should be carried out) to the subunits.
The organizations in this study provide a variety of types of education and training targeted to the diverse populations with which they work. The spectrum of their education and training is very diverse (Table 1). Habitat trains people at all levels from those served to those serving to potential donors/members, and has expanded its efforts to a wider audience by offering courses through Habitat University and through encouraging academic research by the creation of a journal. At the other extreme, the Nature Conservancy provides little specific training at any level. It appears to assume that its donors, volunteers and partners share its goals and interests. Education is done primarily to inform its members and affiliates about its activities and particularly about mission-related needs. The ICRC, Girl Scouts, and National Ski Patrol all provide training to central and non-central staff, and provide specific skills at the constituent level, but engage in little or no partner education.
After examining the five cases, four distinct factors emerge that appear to influence the transmission of organizational culture or ethos via education in decentralized non-profits. These are:
1) Discrete or Continuous Service 2) Empowerment or Amelioration as a Goal 3) Educational Background of those Served 4) Educational Background of those ServingThese four can be grouped into two areas: mission & goal related factors (1 & 2), and factors relating to the educational background of the servers and servees.
Discrete or Continuous Service
There appears to be a difference in activities depending on whether the service is a discrete or distinct service as the case of the International Red Cross and the National Ski Patrol, or an on-going, continuous process as for the Girl Scouts and Habitat. Each of these two situations requires a different degree of autonomy by organizational subunits.
Units that provide one-time (discrete) services need to be able to act on their own, in response to local needs and conditions. They may not have time to get resources, including leadership, from the central organization. In Grossman & Rangan's (2001) terms, they need autonomy. Training is likely to be more formal, particularly in terms of techniques of service delivery. Included in that training, however, would be a thorough grounding in the values of the organization, in particular its culture of caring. While volunteers may be heavily involved in service provisions, most come to the training already having specific useful skills. The ICRC and National Ski Patrol (NSP) both use skilled volunteers (medical personnel and skiers, respectively); training provides additional specific skills and updates, as well as consistency. It also helps to focus those skills on the mission/objectives of the organization; just because you are a good skier doesn't mean that you can provide NSP services, for example.
Organizational subunits that provide continuous services have the luxury of time. Training can be conducted on an on-going or as-needed basis. If additional resources, information or skills are needed for a particular project, the lesser degree of emergency allows for interaction and feedback between subunits and the central organization. Habitat and the Girl Scouts both provide training at the central organizational level, to subunits and individuals, and at the subunit level. Both make heavy use of previously untrained volunteers.
The Nature Conservancy provides on-going environmental education and preservation. However each new site has unique characteristics, both environmental and economic/political. NC relies heavily on direct contact with donors (members) and local partner organizations to accomplish its goals.
Empowerment or Amelioration as a Goal
Units that provide amelioration are often responding to crisis conditions, in addition to being engaged in prevention-oriented activities. While prevention is an educational process that can be carried out over a longer period, amelioration or crisis prevention/response requires immediate action. This means that systems and training must already be in place. Organizations whose mission is empowerment, on the other hand, are building long-term educational relationships with their clients to achieve long-term outcomes. Because of the longer time horizon, empowerment-oriented NPOs and/or their affiliates have the luxury of seeking out and developing partnerships. The longer time horizon also allows subunits to share their experiences and "best practices".
The ICRC and the National Ski Patrol are examples of amelioration organizations. Both provide training to those serving, both staff and volunteers, in advance of potential need. Training is specific and practical, and takes advantage of existing skill sets. The training enables members of these organizations to assist those served and to respond to emergency situations as they develop. Habitat and the Girl Scouts target empowerment. In both cases, training of staff and volunteers is intended to enable the servers to develop skills in those served. Habitat also makes extensive use of partners. The Nature Conservancy falls between the two extremes. Its mission often brings it into "crisis" situations to preserve ecologically valuable but suddenly threatened properties, but it also works proactively. Rather than conducting its own training, it provides resources (legal and environmental) to enable others with similar interests, both governmental and NPO, to reach their common goal of preservation.
Educational Background of Those Served
The NPO's mission and values determine who it serves and the types of services that it provides. The higher the educational level or the stronger the relevant background of those being served (the clients), the less intensive may be the need to educate/train them. Habitat has the lowest level of client education (unless one counts the wildlife of the areas conserved by NC). It provides not only housing but also education in personal financial management and other necessary skills for its clients. The Girl Scouts works with girls and young women, beginning with 5 year olds. Its social and empowerment mission is carried out over a period of years. On the other hand, those being served by the NSP are presumably knowledgeable about skiing and need instruction and assistance primarily in safety.
Educational Background of those Serving
There are two components to this grouping: those directly providing the service and those providing support (funding, volunteers) for that service. The latter category includes the public that the NPO wishes to reach via name recognition, and/or the direct activities of staff, members, partners, and volunteers. In this latter situation, education may be defined as knowledge about the issues important to the NPO.
Current partners, but not necessarily all potential partners, can be assumed to be already educated in the importance of the organization's mission. For example, the Nature Conservancy works extensively with other environmental groups, which already share its basic values. Habitat not only relies on partners but also is taking steps, through its Habitat University, to develop new types of partners, including researchers investigating issues of poverty and housing. Members, for most in this sample, are donors whose donations are indicative of their shared interest in the NPO's mission. Education of this group is primarily to expand their knowledge of mission related issues and to confirm their "citizenship" in the organization's values.
Staff and volunteers may need training, especially those volunteers who are the ones engaged in service delivery. They already share the organization's values, but may need to be educated in mission-related issues as well as in the technical details. For example, the Girl Scout leaders who work directly with the girls are themselves volunteers, most with no special training in child development or education. As a result Girl Scout councils (regional branches of the organization) provide extensive training through workshops. Training also provides the basis for applying specific skills to the mission of the organization, as in the case of the National Ski Patrol. Continuing education may also be a way to maintain volunteers' enthusiasm and commitment, and build "esprit de corps".
As the Non Profit Organizations in our sample have grown, they have found it useful to decentralize in order to serve more constituents. While larger size has its advantages, in name recognition and access to resources as well as accomplishment, it also has its drawbacks. Growth requires both sustaining and transmitting the organization's core values. International Non Profit Organizations need to transmit values in order for individuals, subgroups and non central units to "carry on" the desired, defined, designated mission. This can be related to the role of macro decisions in creating meaning that "becomes the heart of the organic whole" (Sora, Natale & Kakkos, 2004). In the process, they use a wide range of educational techniques.
The degree of autonomy and centralization desired, as described by Grossman & Rangan (2001) is one important factor in determining the types and extent of training and education employed by a resource-mature NPO. Education is both provision of a set of skills and the development of knowledge, for both the members of an organization and its partners. The Nature Conservancy needs only certain aspects of education, since its members and subunits are highly interested and knowledgeable in their own right. It is willing to work extensively with partners to achieve common goals. Effectively, it may be allowing those partners to take responsibility for training/education. The NC, then, primarily updates "members" on its activities (reinforcement of the common mission) and provides support (empowerment) for partners. Habitat for Humanity International, on the other hand, needs to empower people through training on several levels: specific technical skills needed by the servers to build houses, and financial skills needed by the clients to maintain their new lifestyle. Habitat has further expanded its educational role in order to spread the mission farther and faster, reaching out to a wider audience both to teach empowerment skills and to develop new knowledge via support for research. Both Habitat and the Nature Conservancy are creating a legacy, in the sense described by Sora, Natale and Kakkos (2004) earlier in this volume.
No one type of training or education is optimal in enabling NPOs to grow successfully. What appear to be important are the complexity of the mission tasks performed by subunits (the more complex, the higher the need for continuing cross-fertilization and for mission reinforcement) and the levels of education, general and mission-specific, brought to the NPO by its constituents, staff, volunteers, partners and members. Development of a brand is important for building resources but also for education: a strong brand creates an instant identification of the NPO.
Brinkerhoff, P.C. (2000). Social Entrepreneurship: The Art of Mission-Based Venture Development. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Churchill, N.C., & Lewis, V.L. (1983) The five stages of small business growth. Harvard Business Review, 61, 30-50.
Dees, J.G. (1998). The Meaning of Social Entrepreneurship. Stanford Business School: The Center for Social Innovation.
Dees, J.G., Emerson, J., & Economy, P. (2001). Enterprising Nonprofits: A Toolkit for Social Entrepreneurs. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Eggers, J.H., Leahy, K.T., & Churchill, N.C. (1994). Stages of Small Business Growth Revisited: Insights into Growth Path and Leadership/Management Skills In Low- and High-Growth Companies. Pp. 131-144 in Bygrave, W.D. et al, Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research 1994. Babson Park, MA: Babson College.
Grossman, A. & Rangan, V. K. (2001). Managing Multi-Site Nonprofits. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 11 (3), 321 - 337.
Malloy, D.C., & Agarwal, J. (2001). Ethical climate in nonprofit organizations. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 12 (1), 39-54.
Naumes, M.J., Kammermeyer, J.A. & Naumes, W. (2003). Growth in Non-profit Organizations: The Sustainability of Social Entrepreneurship. Presented at the annual meeting of WACRA, The World Organization for Case Method Research and Application, Bordeaux, France, July.
Say, J.B. (1803). A treatise on political economy; or, The production, distribution & consumption of wealth, vol. 2. 4th edition translated by C.R. Princep (1880). Philadelphia: Claxton, Remsen & Haggelfinger.
Schumpeter, J.A. (1950). Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy, 3rd ed. New York: Harper & Row.
Sora, S.A., Natale, S.M. & Kakkos, N. (2004). Decision Making in a Consilient World. Presented at the Seventh International Conference on Social Values, University of Oxford, Oxford, England, July.
Web Sites Cited for Case Information:
Girl Scouts: www.girlscouts.org (last accessed 5/11/04).
Habitat for Humanity International: www.habitat.org (last accessed 5/11/04).
International Committee of the Red Cross: www.icrc.org/eng (last accessed 5/12/04).
National Ski Patrol: www.nsp.org (last accessed 5/11/04).
The Nature Conservancy: www.nature.org (last accessed 5/11/04)